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Robert Reyes
Robert Reyes


Depressants that produce sedation, induce sleep, relieve anxiety and prevent seizures. Available in prescription pills, syrup and injectable preparation. Prescribed as Valium, Xanax, Restoril, Ativan, Klonopin


The images of legitimate and fake pills are examples and do not represent the many variations of fake pills. Never trust your own eyes to determine if a pill is legitimate. The only safe medications are ones prescribed by a trusted medical professional and dispensed by a licensed pharmacist.

Worried about some capsules found in your teenager's room? Not sure about those leftover pills still in the bathroom cabinet? There's a good chance that our Pill Identification Wizard (Pill Finder) can help you match the imprint, size, shape, or color and lead you to the detailed description in our drug database.

Only split a tablet if your pharmacist or doctor tells you to do it and explains how. They might have you split your pills to change the dose of your medication. Or they might recommend it to help you save money, since certain double-strength tablets cost about as much as lower-dose versions.

Nine Texas individuals were arrested this week in Houston on criminal charges related to their alleged involvement in the unlawful distribution of 1.5 million opioid pills and other controlled substances.

Behavior changes learned through cognitive behavioral therapy are generally the best treatment for ongoing insomnia. Sleeping on a regular schedule, exercising regularly, avoiding caffeine later in the day, avoiding daytime naps and keeping stress in check also are likely to help. But there are times when the addition of prescription sleeping pills may help you get some much-needed rest.

All prescription sleeping pills have risks, especially for people with certain medical conditions, including liver or kidney disease, and for older adults. Always talk with your health care provider before trying a new treatment for insomnia.

Always ask your health care provider about potential side effects before deciding which sleeping pills to consider taking. Depending on the type, prescription sleeping pills may include side effects such as:

Prescription sleeping pills (and even some nonprescription sleeping aids), as well as certain antidepressants, may not be safe if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or an older adult. Sleeping pill use may increase the risk of nighttime falls and injury in older adults. If you're an older adult, your health care provider may prescribe a lower dose of medicine to reduce your risk of problems.

Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence indicate that one person in Kansas became sick after taking rattlesnake pills purchased in Mexico. The ill person reported taking rattlesnake pills in the week before getting sick. Advanced laboratory testing called whole genome sequencing showed that the Salmonella that made the person sick matched the Salmonella found in rattlesnake pills from Mexico collected in an earlier, unrelated investigation.

People in the following groups are more likely to get a severe Salmonella infection: People with weakened immune systems, including people who are receiving chemotherapy or have HIV; pregnant women; children younger than 5 years; and older adults. If you get sick after taking rattlesnake pills, contact your health care provider.

Birth control pills are a kind of medicine with hormones. Birth control pills come in a pack, and you take 1 pill every day. The pill is safe, affordable, and effective if you always take your pill on time. Besides preventing pregnancy, the pill has lots of other health benefits, too.

Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) are hormone-containing medications that are taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy. They prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and also by preventing sperm from penetrating through the cervix.

Naturally occurring estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development and growth of some cancers (e.g., cancers that express receptors for these hormones, such as breast cancer). Because birth control pills contain synthetic versions of these female hormones, they could potentially also increase cancer risk.

Currently, there are three types of oral contraceptive pills: combined estrogen-progesterone, progesterone-only, and continuous or extended use pill. The birth control pill is the most commonly prescribed form of contraception in the US. Approximately 25% of women aged 15 to 44 who currently use contraception reported using the pill as their method of choice. The most commonly prescribed pill is the combined hormonal pill with estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone is the hormone that prevents pregnancy, and the estrogen component controls menstrual bleeding. Birth control pills are primarily used to prevent pregnancy. The effectiveness of this form of birth control is referred to as typical and perfect use. This activity reviews the indications and contraindications, pharmacology, and various formulations of oral contraceptives and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in educating patients about birth control.

The birth control pill is the most commonly prescribed form of contraception in the US. Approximately 25% of women aged 15-44 who currently use contraception reported using the pill as their method of choice. Oral contraceptive pills are either combined estrogen-progesterone(also called combined oral contraceptive pill- COC) or progesterone-only pill (POP). The most commonly prescribed pill is the combined hormonal pill with estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone is the hormone that prevents pregnancy, and the estrogen component controls menstrual bleeding.[1] Birth control pills are primarily used to avoid pregnancy. The type of use of medicine estimates the effectiveness of these oral contraceptive medicines.

While multiple types of progestin pills are available in the US, most frequently formulations have drospirenone or norethindrone. Drospirenone suppresses ovulation and also has anti-mineralocorticoid activity. While norethindrone primarily acts by thickening cervical mucus to inhibit sperm penetration, suppressing ovulation, decreasing the mid-cycle LH and FSH peaks, which slows the movement of the ovum through fallopian tubes, and alters endometrium thickness. Some progestin compounds have more potent antiandrogenic properties and, therefore more effective in treating polycystic ovary syndrome, hirsutism, and acne.[7]

Choice of COC: Usually, Ethinyl estradiol dose is less than 50 mcg in this combination of pills. The pills can be either monophasic (same dose of both components in the active pills) or multiphasic (varying doses weekly of both or either component in the active pills). Depending on withdrawal bleeding desired by the patient and clinically recommended, it can be prescribed as a cyclic (monthly bleeding), extended cyclic (every three months bleeding), or continuous dosing(no bleeding).

Initiation: Combined oral contraceptive pills are to be taken daily at approximately the same time each day. Avoid taking them greater than 24 hours apart as this could affect efficacy. There are two methods of initiating COC for women per their priority as follow:[8]

Missed doses: If a patient misses a tablet, take the missed tablet as soon as they remember and the next tablet at the usual time (taking two pills in 1 day). If the patient misses two tablets in a row in the first or second week, take two tablets the day the patient remembers and two pills the next day, then resume 1 per day. Use additional forms of contraception until the patient begins a new cycle.[10] Check the package insert for accurate information on managing if it occurs.

Emergency Contraception: It is recommended in the first week of the cycle if unprotected intercourse occurs and if two or more COC pills are missed (exception ulipristal acetate).

Most side effects of OCP's are mild and disappear with continued use or switching to another pill formulation. The most common adverse effect of combined oral contraceptive pills is breakthrough bleeding. Women will also complain of nausea, headaches, abdominal cramping, breast tenderness, and increased vaginal discharge or decreased libido. Nausea can be avoided by taking the medication at night before sleep. The majority of the other consequences will resolve with time or switching OCP to a different preparation.

Four studies on teenage women found a small negative effect of combined oral contraceptive pills on the acquisition of bone mineral density. In addition, COC use increases the risk of venous thrombotic events (VTE), especially during the first year of initiation. VTE risk increases with high Ethinyl Estradiol dose and 3rd and 4th generation progestin.[12]

Stroke and/or Myocardial infarction: In a meta-analysis, which included 28 publications reported COC users were at higher risk of ischemic stroke (relative risk 1.7, 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9) and myocardial infarction (relative risk 1.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1) when compared with non-users. The risks did not depend on type pr generation of progestagen. Data analysis showed the risk of ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction increases with higher doses of estrogen. This risk was highest when pills had more than 50 micrograms of estrogen. Most preparation now contains less than 50 micrograms of estrogen, making COC substantially safer to use. COC pill containing 30μg of estrogen and levonorgestrel is the safest oral form of combined oral contraceptive pills.[13]

These pills do not protect against any sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Thus, using a condom is highly recommended, especially if the partner is a stranger. Regular monitoring of the patient is necessary to ensure that she is not developing any serious side effects.[14][15]

COC: The Patients should be counseled thoroughly on potential adverse reactions before initiating hormone contraceptive pills and informed to report signs and symptoms of serious adverse reactions to achieve better adherence and treatment outcomes. A healthy woman taking COCs should have an annual visit with her primary care provider for a blood pressure check and routine medical care. Monitor blood pressure in women with well-controlled hypertension being managed medically. Monitor prediabetic and diabetic women periodically as hormone contraceptives may impair glucose intolerance and is usually dose-dependent. 041b061a72


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