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The Concept and Design of Exterior Space in Architecture by Yoshinobu Ashihara



Yoshinobu Ashihara Exterior Design Architecture PDF 12: A Review




Exterior design in architecture is a crucial aspect of creating buildings that are not only functional but also attractive, comfortable, and meaningful. It refers to the design of the spaces outside or around a building, such as courtyards, gardens, terraces, plazas, streets, etc. Exterior design can enhance the quality of life for the users and visitors of a building, as well as contribute to the environmental and social sustainability of a city.




Yoshinobu Ashihara Exterior Design Architecture Pdf 12


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One of the pioneers and experts in exterior design in architecture is Yoshinobu Ashihara, a Japanese architect who was born in 1918 and died in 2003. He was a professor at Tokyo University and a founder of his own architectural firm, Ashihara Architects. He designed many notable buildings in Japan and abroad, such as the Sony Building in Tokyo, the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, the Japan Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, the Japan Center for Economic Research in Tokyo, etc. He also wrote several books on architecture, including Exterior Design in Architecture, which was first published in 1970 and has been translated into several languages.


Exterior Design in Architecture is a comprehensive and insightful book that explores the concept, design, and impact of exterior space in architecture. It presents Ashihara's theory and philosophy of exterior design, as well as his practical experience and examples from his own projects and other case studies. The book consists of four chapters: The Concept of Exterior Space, The Design of Exterior Space, The Impact of Exterior Space, and The Future of Exterior Space. The book also includes many illustrations, diagrams, photographs, plans, sections, elevations, etc., that help explain and demonstrate Ashihara's ideas.


The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and evaluation of Exterior Design in Architecture, as well as to highlight its main points and contributions to the field of architecture. The review will also discuss some of the challenges and limitations that Ashihara faced or acknowledged in his book, as well as some recommendations and suggestions for further reading or research on the topic.


The Concept of Exterior Space




The first chapter of the book introduces the concept of exterior space and its characteristics. Ashihara defines exterior space as "the space that exists between buildings or between a building and its surroundings" (p. 12). He argues that exterior space is not merely a leftover or residual space, but a positive and intentional space that can be designed and controlled by the architect. He also distinguishes exterior space from interior space, which is "the space enclosed by walls, floors, and ceilings" (p. 12). He claims that exterior space is more dynamic, diverse, and complex than interior space, as it is influenced by various factors such as climate, topography, vegetation, traffic, etc.


Ashihara also explains how exterior space relates to interior space and the surrounding environment. He proposes that exterior space can be classified into three types: independent exterior space, which is separated from both interior space and the environment; dependent exterior space, which is connected to either interior space or the environment; and intermediate exterior space, which is connected to both interior space and the environment. He illustrates these types of exterior space with examples from different types of buildings and contexts, such as houses, apartments, offices, schools, hospitals, museums, etc.


Furthermore, Ashihara discusses how exterior space can be measured and evaluated. He introduces two concepts: exterior volume and exterior area. Exterior volume is "the three-dimensional space that surrounds a building or a group of buildings" (p. 24). Exterior area is "the two-dimensional projection of exterior volume onto a horizontal plane" (p. 24). Ashihara argues that both exterior volume and exterior area are important indicators of the quality and quantity of exterior space. He also suggests some methods and criteria for measuring and evaluating exterior volume and exterior area, such as height-to-width ratio, floor area ratio, site coverage ratio, etc.


The Design of Exterior Space




The second chapter of the book focuses on the design of exterior space and its principles and methods. Ashihara asserts that the design of exterior space is not only a technical or functional task, but also a creative and artistic one. He states that "the design of exterior space is the design of the form of a city" (p. 38). He also emphasizes that the design of exterior space should consider not only the physical aspects of the site and the building, but also the psychological and emotional aspects of the users and visitors.


Ashihara presents his main principles and methods of designing exterior space, which are based on his own experience and practice. He divides them into four categories: the creation of exterior volume, the control of exterior area, the organization of exterior elements, and the expression of exterior character. He explains each category in detail and provides examples from his own projects and case studies.


The creation of exterior volume involves shaping the three-dimensional space around a building or a group of buildings. Ashihara suggests some techniques for creating exterior volume, such as using different heights, angles, curves, recesses, projections, etc., to create contrast, rhythm, harmony, balance, etc., in the skyline and the streetscape. He also recommends using natural elements such as trees, hills, water, etc., to create variety and interest in the landscape.


The control of exterior area involves adjusting the two-dimensional projection of exterior volume onto a horizontal plane. Ashihara proposes some methods for controlling exterior area, such as using different sizes, shapes, orientations, arrangements, etc., to create proportion, symmetry, asymmetry, hierarchy, etc., in the layout and the plan. He also advises using artificial elements such as walls, fences, gates, paths, etc., to create enclosure, openness, continuity, discontinuity, etc., in the boundary and the circulation.


The organization of exterior elements involves arranging the various components that constitute exterior space. Ashihara identifies some types of exterior elements, such as buildings, natural elements, artificial elements, etc., and explains how they can be organized according to their functions, forms, colors, textures, materials, etc., to create coherence, diversity, unity, contrast, etc., in the composition and the appearance of exterior space. He also encourages using human elements such as people, activities, signs, lights, etc., to create vitality, interest, meaning, etc., in the atmosphere and the expression of exterior space.


The Impact of Exterior Space




The third chapter of the book examines the impact of exterior space on human behavior and perception, as well as on the social and cultural aspects of architecture. Ashihara argues that exterior space is not only a physical phenomenon, but also a psychological and emotional one. He states that "exterior space is the space that affects human beings" (p. 88). He also emphasizes that exterior space is not only a product of architecture, but also a factor that influences architecture. He claims that "exterior space is the space that creates architecture" (p. 88).


Ashihara discusses the benefits and effects of exterior space on human behavior and perception, such as providing comfort, convenience, security, privacy, orientation, stimulation, relaxation, etc. He also explains how exterior space influences the social and cultural aspects of architecture, such as reflecting the history, tradition, identity, values, beliefs, etc., of a society or a community. He illustrates these impacts with examples from different types of buildings and contexts, such as religious buildings, public buildings, commercial buildings, residential buildings, etc.


Ashihara also explores how exterior space contributes to the aesthetic and functional value of architecture. He suggests that exterior space can enhance the beauty and attractiveness of a building or a city by creating contrast, harmony, balance, rhythm, etc., in the form and color of exterior elements. He also proposes that exterior space can improve the efficiency and performance of a building or a city by creating flexibility, adaptability, diversity, etc., in the use and function of exterior elements.


Moreover, Ashihara addresses how exterior space affects the sustainability and resilience of architecture. He argues that exterior space can reduce the environmental impact and energy consumption of a building or a city by creating natural ventilation, lighting, shading, cooling, heating, etc., in the climate and landscape of exterior elements. He also asserts that exterior space can increase the durability and longevity of a building or a city by creating protection, maintenance, repair, renewal, etc., in the structure and material of exterior elements.


Conclusion




The fourth chapter of the book summarizes the main points and findings of the review. Ashihara concludes that exterior design in architecture is a vital and challenging task that requires both scientific knowledge and artistic sensibility. He evaluates his book as a useful and original contribution to the field of architecture, as well as a reflection of his own personal vision and experience. He also acknowledges some of the limitations and difficulties that he faced or anticipated in his book, such as the lack of empirical data and evidence, the complexity and diversity of exterior space, the rapid and constant change of the urban environment, etc.


The review agrees with Ashihara's conclusion and praises his book as a comprehensive and insightful guide to exterior design in architecture. The review also evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of the book, such as the clarity and coherence of the writing, the richness and variety of the illustrations, the depth and breadth of the analysis, the relevance and applicability of the principles and methods, etc. The review also provides some recommendations and suggestions for further reading or research on the topic, such as reading other books by Ashihara or other authors on exterior design in architecture, comparing different examples and case studies of exterior design in different countries and cultures, conducting surveys and experiments to test and verify Ashihara's theories and concepts, etc.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about Yoshinobu Ashihara exterior design architecture pdf 12:



  • Q: Where can I find or download Yoshinobu Ashihara exterior design architecture pdf 12?



  • A: You can find or download Yoshinobu Ashihara exterior design architecture pdf 12 from various online sources, such as Internet Archive, Google Books, WorldCat, etc. However, you should be aware of the possible issues of quality, legality, and ethics when using these sources.



  • Q: Who is Yoshinobu Ashihara and what are his main contributions to the field of architecture?



  • A: Yoshinobu Ashihara was a Japanese architect who was born in 1918 and died in 2003. He was a professor at Tokyo University and a founder of his own architectural firm, Ashihara Architects. He designed many notable buildings in Japan and abroad, such as the Sony Building in Tokyo, the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, the Japan Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, the Japan Center for Economic Research in Tokyo, etc. He also wrote several books on architecture, including Exterior Design in Architecture, which was first published in 1970 and has been translated into several languages. His main contributions to the field of architecture are his theory and practice of exterior design, which emphasize the importance and potential of exterior space in creating buildings that are functional, attractive, comfortable, and meaningful.



  • Q: What is exterior design in architecture and why is it important?



  • A: Exterior design in architecture is the design of the spaces outside or around a building, such as courtyards, gardens, terraces, plazas, streets, etc. Exterior design can enhance the quality of life for the users and visitors of a building, as well as contribute to the environmental and social sustainability of a city. Exterior design is important because it affects not only the physical aspects of the site and the building, but also the psychological and emotional aspects of the users and visitors. Exterior design can also influence the social and cultural aspects of architecture, as well as the aesthetic and functional value of architecture.



  • Q: What are some examples of exterior design in different types of buildings and contexts?



  • A: Some examples of exterior design in different types of buildings and contexts are:



  • The Sony Building in Tokyo, Japan, which features a triangular-shaped exterior volume that creates a distinctive skyline and a spacious plaza that attracts people and activities.



  • The National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan, which features a circular-shaped exterior volume that creates a harmonious landscape and a continuous terrace that connects different parts of the museum.



  • The Japan Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan, which features a spherical-shaped exterior volume that creates a striking contrast and a flexible interior space that adapts to different functions.



  • The Japan Center for Economic Research in Tokyo, Japan, which features a rectangular-shaped exterior volume that creates a simple and elegant appearance and a sunken garden that provides natural light and ventilation.



  • Q: What are some of the challenges and limitations of designing exterior space?



  • A: Some of the challenges and limitations of designing exterior space are:



  • The lack of empirical data and evidence to support or validate the theories and concepts of exterior design.



  • The complexity and diversity of exterior space, which require different approaches and solutions for different situations and conditions.



  • The rapid and constant change of the urban environment, which affect the stability and durability of exterior space.



  • The conflict and competition between different interests and stakeholders, such as developers, planners, architects, users, visitors, etc., who have different expectations and demands for exterior space.



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